Root canal treatment is a dental procedure that is applied to teeth whose pulp is irreversibly damaged and inflamed for various reasons and aims to save the natural tooth. Endodontic treatment is a multi-stage procedure, during which the infected pulp is removed, the root canal is carefully cleaned and disinfected, then sealed.
Microorganisms play an important role in the development and maintenance of endodontic infection. Root canal infections are a dynamic process, and the dominant species differ at different stages of infection. The number of microorganisms in the canal, microbial virulence, and host responses affect the degree of periapical inflammation and symptoms. Therefore, successful endodontic treatment depends on the effective removal of microorganisms from the root canal system. Recent microbial detection methods provide increasing information about the microbial species associated with endodontic infections and their roles. Knowing the specific bacterial species involved in pulpal and periapical pathology and the mechanisms by which bacteria maintain inflammatory lesions will facilitate rational treatment for microbial elimination and increase the success of endodontic treatment.
This presentation aims to review the microbiology of endodontic infections with emphasis on the recent taxonomy, pathways, pathology, virulence, and clinical effects. Thus, it will help to gain a perspective on developments in this field.