Purpose: Ankylotic root resorption is a serious complication following traumatic dental injuries. The etiology of root resorption includes acute injury to the cementum and periodontal ligament, and subsequent biological processes that propagate the harm. The aim of the present paper is to present a structured treatment protocol for teeth that have experienced trauma and are at risk of developing ankylotic root resorption, followed by a decoronation protocol for situations in which ankylotic root resorption developed.
Materials and methods: This protocol provides a structured road map from the primary dental trauma, through the initial development of ankylosis detected radiographically, until the clinical manifestation that results in significant infra-occlusion. The current protocol integrates best available evidence from the literature and from published guidelines.
Results: Ample contradictory data, which mainly consists of case reports related to the treatment of ankylotic root resorption, is available in the current literature. There is no accepted protocol or uniform guidelines for treatment in these cases and many clinicians prefer avoiding replantation of an avulsed tooth that seems to have guarded long-term prognosis, or performing decoronation when infraocclusion developed. As a result, young patients lose the benefits associated with replantation and decoronation procedures.
Conclusions: The option of re-implantation of the avulsed teeth should be considered irrespective of the negative long-term prognosis. Following ankylosis development, the goal of submerging the tooth root (decoronation) is to maintain the horizontal dimension of the alveolar ridge and also to gain vertical dimension, allowing implant placement in the future.