The control of pain, its diagnosis and management is a daily obligation for all dental professionals. Yet, many patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders(TMD) and headache can be dismissed, misdiagnosed, and/or treated incorrectly. Temporomandibular disorders are a group of conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint and/or the muscles of mastication. Temporomandibular disorders(TMD) may present along with many comorbid pain syndromes, including headache. Temporomandibular disorders(TMD) and primary headache can be persistent and debilitating musculoskeletal and neurological disorders, together affecting up to one sixth of the population at any one time. Early on, temporomandibular disorders(TMD) were thought to be most often associated with musculoskeletal disorders and migraine was thought to be solely a cerebrovascular disorder. This presentation will provide relevant descriptions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of headache and temporomandibular disorders, clarifying their relationship and offering a role of the trigeminal nerve complex in their relationship.